A healthy Chesapeake Bay brings with it a multitude of benefits, including cleaner water for swimming and boating and habitat to support more fish and wildlife. But when Chesapeake Bay Program partners signed the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement in 2014, they committed to a vision for a wholly sustainable Bay: not just environmentally, but economically as well. Spanning six states and Washington D.C., the Chesapeake Bay region contains more than 18 million people who are all connected to the Bay and its waterways, and many of whom, in whether directly or indirectly, rely on the Bay’s contribution to the region’s economy. Below are five industries tied to a healthy Bay.
Recreation and tourism
The Chesapeake Bay, its rivers and streams and the surrounding forests, mountains and outdoor sights are a huge draw to visitors, both watershed residents and those from out of the area. The region’s 55 National Park Service sites, scores of state parks, 15 wildlife refuges, 1,269 public access sites and hundreds of cultural areas draw millions of people to the outdoors each year to enjoy all these sites have to offer.
According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, over 16.5 million people in the states of Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia participated in wildlife-related recreation, such as hunting or bird-watching, in 2011. Furthermore, those people spent over $18 billion dollars on trip-related expenses, equipment and other needs.
Millions of visitors means a need for staff to operate the parks, guides to lead trips, outfitters to supply equipment, hotels to house visitors and so much more. Employers in recreation and tourism in the region support over 820,800 jobs and over $13 billion in income annually; another 20,000 self-employed participants also attribute to this industry.
While all of these parks and public access points are important, watershed residents don’t reap all the benefits if they are not healthy—which can in turn hurt local businesses. For example, chemical contaminants in the water can be ingested and carried by fish of all sizes, and subsequent fish consumption advisories can lead to fewer trips on the water and lost sales at gear shops. Similarly, a 2005 fish kill in the Shenandoah River, likely caused by poor water quality, led to an estimated $700,000 in lost retail sales and revenue.
Commercial fishing has long been associated with the Chesapeake Bay. The iconic image of the Bay is of watermen out on the water, putting down crab pots or tonging for oysters. These aren’t just images, but real people doing real—and often difficult—jobs. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the fishing industry accounts for 7,952 jobs in the states of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia.
Blue crabs are an important species that require clean water, abundant beds of underwater grasses and sufficient dissolved oxygen to survive. A healthy Bay not only supports the stability and growth of their population, but also supports a regional—and national—industry. In 2014, Maryland and Virginia accounted for over one-third of total blue crab landings revenue in the United States, totaling over $80 million.
Outside of the Bay itself are rivers and streams that are vital habitat to important species like striped bass. Also known as rockfish, striped bass return to the Bay each year to spawn in its freshwater tributaries, and are a prized up and down the East Coast for commercial and recreational fishing.
Along with oysters, blue crabs and striped bass, the Bay and its tributaries support fishing of scallops, black sea bass, menhaden, summer flounder and white perch—to name a few.
Aquaculture, or underwater farming, is the growing of fish and shellfish in a controlled environment. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 137 aquaculture farms in Maryland and Virginia generated nearly $62 million in sales in 2013. Two-thirds of those farms were raising shellfish like clams and oysters and likely used the Bay and its tributaries to grow their stock. A clean Bay means healthy oyster habitat: the water needs to be clean enough to keep so that their oysters aren’t buried in sediment or exposed to other things that could weaken and kill them.
Aquaculture is a particularly large industry in Virginia, where in 2013, it made up over 30 percent of hard clam and Eastern oyster aquaculture sales in the U.S.
Outside of the growing or catching of fish is an entire industry situated to support it. Distributors transport fish to supermarkets, canning facilities and restaurants that turn around and sell that food to consumers. Some fish is processed and turned into other products such as fish oils and pet food. From processors and dealers to wholesale and distributors, the seafood industry contributes to over 24,000 jobs in Delaware, Maryland and Virginia.
With more and more people wanting to buy local food, supermarkets and restaurants both on the Bay and throughout the region benefit from having an abundance of watermen and commercial fisheries nearby.
But the process doesn’t end at the table. Organizations like the Oyster Recovery Partnership collect oyster shells and return them to the Bay and its tributaries to help bolster and rebuild oyster reefs. While baby oysters can grow on a number of surfaces, they prefer to attach to oyster shells, so recycling old shell is the best way to promote reef growth. And since oysters are filter feeders—meaning they help clean the Bay’s water as they eat and grow—more oysters means a cleaner Bay and a stronger seafood industry.
Restoring the Bay’s health means reducing the amount of pollutants like nutrients and sediment in the rivers and streams that empty into the Bay. But sending cleaner water to the Bay also means sending cleaner water to utility companies and wastewater treatment plants. By reducing the amount of pollutants in the water, water utility companies reduce costs needed to bring water up to standards. A study by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency found that for every $1 spent of source-water protection, $27 were saved in water treatment costs.
One of a utility’s biggest costs is removing coagulants—sediment—from the water. A Brooking’s Institute study found that a one percent decrease in sediment in the water can lead to a 0.05 percent decrease in treatment costs. If there is less sediment in the water, then companies can save money on treatment and focus it instead on infrastructure upgrades and other projects. Potentially, those savings will be passed down to consumers through a lower water bill.
The list of businesses and sectors that benefit from a healthy Bay does not end here. Watermen buy fishing equipment, charter boats require service and tourists who visit the area spend their money in hotels, shops and restaurants. Restoring the Chesapeake Bay is good for the critters that live in its watershed, but it’s also good for us.
Does your work benefit from a healthy Bay? Let us know in the comments!
Photos by Will Parson and Steve Droter
The “green sector” is the part of the economy that includes jobs aimed at reducing energy, protecting ecosystems, managing natural resources, increasing efficiency and much more. It’s a growing part of the economy that includes a wide range of jobs, but will always be in need of people with the support and training to fill those positions. As the Chesapeake Bay Program takes steps to increase the inclusion of diverse communities in our environmental efforts, here are a few of the groups working to support and build skills among those who are entering, or are already part of, the green workforce.
Green 2.0 is an effort to increase racial and ethnic diversity within the environmental field. The group’s 2014 report, The State of Diversity in Environmental Organizations, found that the minority composition in environmental groups has not broken through the “green ceiling” of 12 to 16 percent, despite the country’s overall increase in diversity. Members of Green 2.0 aim to change that statistic within the field by advocating for transparency and accountability, which includes tracking progress toward increased diversity.
Minorities in Agriculture, Natural Resources and Related Sciences
Minorities in Agriculture, Natural Resources and Related Sciences (MANRRS) is one of many organizations working to break the “green ceiling” identified by Green 2.0. The national organization—with chapters at nine colleges in Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia and Washington, D.C.—promotes academic and professional advancement by empowering minorities in the environmental sciences. With both student and professional members, MANRRS serves as a forum for professional development, networking and mentorship for students as well as a source of prospective and qualified employees for professionals.
Chesapeake Bay Trust
The Chesapeake Bay Trust supports engagement in restoration activities its many grant programs. One of those, the Green Streets, Green Jobs, Green Towns (G3) grant program, helps support the green sector by funding projects that require those services. The grant funds projects that increase green spaces and incorporate practices that help control stormwater runoff.
The G3 grant focuses on green streets, because by doing so—as its name implies—it also supports green jobs and creating green towns. Addressing stormwater runoff issues enhances local water quality and increases a community’s livability. Building and maintaining these projects can help support the green jobs market, and enhance economic vitality.
Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay
In January 2017, the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay formally pledged to foster diversity and inclusion in its structure, policy, goals, and staff and leadership. This commitment formally stated what the organization has been working toward in many of its projects and programs.
One of those programs is the Restoring the Environment and Developing Youth (READY) Program, which the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay began in 2012 in partnership with local organizations in Howard County, Maryland. The program has the explicit goal of developing job skills in young adults, while also helping the county meet stormwater needs. However, READY particularly focus on engaging communities that are traditionally underserved when it comes to environmental activities.
Aimed at residents between the ages of 16 and 24, the program is designed to provide jobs for young adults with limited or no access to environmental jobs, allowing them to develop the skills necessary for a future in stormwater management. Over the course of a summer, participants learn to install rain gardens, assist in tree plantings and engage with the community around improving local water quality. They come out of the program with the experience, knowledge and skills to continue down the path toward a career in the environmental field.
Washington Parks and People
Like READY, Washington Parks and People’s Green Corps program has two goals: increase employment among the residents of Washington, D.C.’s underserved Seventh and Eighth Wards while also addressing the city’s urban forestry needs.
This eight-week program provides trainees—many of whom are ex-offenders—with entry-level training in fields such as urban forestry, stormwater management and green infrastructure. Along with learning job skills, trainees build self-confidence, gain experience working on a team and work to improve their community. Upon completion of the program, trainees receive a certificate as well as help with referrals and finding job opportunities.
Civic Works is a Baltimore-based organization that aims to strengthen the city’s neighborhoods through education, skill development and service. They operate a number of programs with a particular focus on creating jobs, growing and promoting healthy food, reducing and conserving energy and creating a more livable city.
One program in particular, the Baltimore Center for Green Careers (BCGC), trains participants to enter emerging green industries including solar installation, weatherization and brownfield remediation. Participants complete classroom training, a practicum and, in most cases, paid on-the-job training. Through the program, trainees receive industry-recognized certifications.
Along with learning the skills and techniques necessary for these career paths, participants learn skills such as financial literacy and conflict management to help them make the most of their placement after the program. BCGC partners with almost a dozen companies that have committed to hire exclusively BCGC graduates and pay “family-sustaining” wages.
Are you looking for an environmental job or to fund a green project? Our weekly newsletter, Bay Brief, is full of current job openings and grants available around the Chesapeake region.
What other groups provide job training or support in the environmental field? Let us know in the comments!
Image by Will Parson; READY video by Steve Droter
The environmental field is full of jobs that are personally fulfilling and make a difference at every scale. While some—like wildlife biologist or clean water activist—seem obvious, there are some not-so-obvious green collar jobs that have a lasting impact. Here, we’ve pulled together a list of some of those uncommon and unique ways of working in the green sector.
Conservation Corps volunteer
In the spirit of AmeriCorps, the Chesapeake Conservation Corps is a program that prepares young adults looking to enter the environmental field. Volunteers gain leadership and job training through a year of service, for which they receive a stipend. They are assigned to an organization in the Chesapeake region ranging from county governments and museums, to environmental nonprofits and nature centers.
Look for similar opportunities with the Delaware Conservation Corps, Maryland Conservation Corps, New York’s Excelsior Conservation Corps, Pennsylvania Outdoor Corps and Citizens Conservation Corps of West Virginia. Virginia has a similar program, the Service and Conservation Corps Veterans Crew, for military veterans.
Arborists are responsible for managing and maintaining trees in a given area. Some arborists consult with local governments, landowners and utility companies to plant trees that won’t eventually tangle with power lines or require more space than is available. Others take a more hands-on approach and focus on planting and pruning street trees or treating sick ones.
Working with trees is a great way to work in and with communities to create a more beautiful space. In recent years, organizations like Blue Water Baltimore and Washington Parks and People have used job programs centered around trees to help people who live in underserved areas or who were released from prison to gain skills and job experience while benefitting their communities.
LEED credentialed professional
Construction is a field that is full of careers that affect the environment. Beginning with the architect who designs the building and the forester who manages timber supplies, all the way to the client who maintains the building, each stage of the construction process holds an opportunity to be green. One way to set yourself apart and help the environment is to have LEED certification.
LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, which is a rating system created by the U.S. Green Building Council to determine the environmental performance of a building and encourage more sustainable design. It is a system that covers almost the entire lifespan of a building, including citing, construction, materials and maintenance. Once construction is complete, a building can become LEED certified if it meets certain standards. When it opened in 2001, the Philip Merrill Environmental Center—the Chesapeake Bay Foundation’s headquarters in Annapolis, Maryland—was the first building in the world to receive a LEED Platinum rating.
Having LEED credentials not only helps the environment brick by brick, but can make you more marketable to employers, potentially leading to a higher overall salary. Jobs that benefit from LEED accreditation include: construction managers, architects, landscape designers, facility managers, contractors, tradesmen and engineers.
While some careers focus on how we create energy, such as solar panel installers or wind turbine engineers, energy auditors focus on how efficiently we use it. They consult with property owners about ways they could improve the efficiency of their home or building.
Energy auditors inspect buildings to determine where energy is being wasted or used inefficiently. After the visit, they provide property owners with advice on upgrades to make to improve the building’s efficiency. Most of the watershed’s jurisdictions—which include six states and the District of Columbia—have residential and commercial energy audit programs, with many of them offering free or discounted energy audits for qualifying residents.
Prescribed burn crew member
While it might seem counterintuitive, fire can be used in some places around the region to restore and maintain habitats. However, these aren’t any old fires, and they definitely are not wild. These fires are set and managed by professionals on prescribed fire burn crews. Fires can provide an ecosystem with a number of benefits by helping to return nutrients to the soil, open up dense areas and control invasive species. Being a member of a burn crew is a unique way to help restore important habitat. Programs like the Natural Lands Project in Chestertown, Maryland, use prescribed burns to create habitat for breeding grassland birds.
The green career field has many opportunities for involvement including starting off on your own path. There are opportunities for new and innovative businesses in growing fields like renewable energy, or to combat food deserts by starting an urban farm.
More broadly, green entrepreneurship doesn’t need to include only businesses with titles that include the word “energy” or “conservation.” Green entrepreneurs could do just about anything as long as they have a foundation of sustainability. From aquaculture companies to area chefs, entrepreneurs across the region are incorporating sustainability into their business models. Perhaps you open a restaurant that sources only local ingredients, a bike shop that refurbishes old bikes or a hair salon that uses natural haircare products. Reducing the environmental footprint of your business, and encouraging others to do the same, is a great way to work toward a better environment.
Want to get involved in the environmental field? Our weekly newsletter, Bay Brief, is full of current environmental job openings around the Chesapeake region.
Do you work in the environmental field? Let us know what you do in the comments!