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Development- Development can have a lasting impact on the natural environment, threatening the conservation of forests and farms and creating new pathways that send pollutants into rivers and streams.
Forest for sale sign - {description} Stacks of harvested trees - {description} Suburban Development in Easton, Md. - A subdivision in Easton, Md., on June 18, 2010. (Photo by Matt Rath/Chesapeake Bay Program) Cutting down forest - A forest is cleared on Oct. 27, 2009. Through a process known as attenuation, forests can capture more than 85 percent of the nitrogen that falls onto them from the air, blocking it from flowing into our groundwater, rivers and streams. (Photo by Chesapeake Bay Program) IMG_0726 - Marydel, Md.
Caroline County Staunton, Va. - {description}
Development can have a lasting impact on the natural environment, threatening the conservation of forests and farms and creating new pathways that send pollutants into rivers and streams.


As more people move into the Chesapeake Bay watershed, more land is cleared for the development of roads, homes and businesses. Residents have expanded out of traditional urban centers and into bigger houses on larger lots, turning forests, farms and other valuable landscapes into subdivisions, shopping centers and parking lots, and impacting the health of our rivers and streams.

How is development a pressure on the Chesapeake Bay?

Development itself does not have to harm the Chesapeake Bay. But the way we develop the land—where we put new roads and buildings and how we construct them—can have a lasting impact on the natural environment.

When low-density residential and commercial areas are built far from existing cities and towns, new infrastructure—schools, roads, shopping centers—is built along with them. Over time, the once-open areas between these new developments and existing cities and towns are filled in. This type of development, called sprawl, chews up forests, farms and shorelines, and degrades land and water habitats.

Using more land than we need

As our communities expand out of existing cities and towns, our homes tend to take up more land than we need. According to a report from the U.S. Census Bureau, the average American home built in 2015 measured 2,467 square feet. This marks a 49 percent increase from 1973, even as the average household population has fallen. 

Losing forests and farms

Development is one of the biggest threats to forest conservation.

  • Between 1982 and 1997, the watershed lost more than 750,000 acres of forestland to development—a rate of about 100 acres per day. While this rate fell in 2006 to an estimated 70 acres per day, it remains unsustainable.
  • Sixty percent of the region’s forests have been divided by roads and subdivisions into fragments. Fragmented forests are less resilient to disturbances and more prone to wildfires, invasive species and other negative influences.
  • According to The State of Chesapeake Forests, more than 35 percent of the region’s private forests are vulnerable to development. Of those vulnerable forest lands, 3.5 million acres are among the most valuable for protecting clean water.

A loss of forests means a loss of valuable habitat that protects clean water and air and supports the region’s economy.

The loss of farmland can also impact the environment: well-managed agricultural lands can restore rivers and streams and provide habitat to insects, birds and mammals. Agriculture is also a large part of the culture, heritage and economy of the watershed.

Increasing air and water pollution

Development is inextricably linked to air and water quality. As we build more roads and homes and disturb more parcels of land, we create more pathways that send pollutants into our air and water:

  • People who live outside of urban centers often spend more time traveling in their cars to reach their destinations. This increases congestion on the road and pollution in the air. Vehicle emissions are a source of nitrogen oxides, which account for two-thirds of the airborne nitrogen that ends up in the Bay and contribute to ground-level ozone pollution.
  • Roads, rooftops and parking lots are impervious surfaces: paved or hardened surfaces that do not allow water to pass through. When rain falls onto an impervious surface, it can pick up harmful pollutants before entering storm drains, rivers and streams. A rise in impervious surfaces means a rise in stormwater runoff, which alters natural stream flow and lowers water quality.
  • Development along beaches and shorelines can send excess sediment into the Bay. Man-made, hardened shorelines—those lined with rocks, wood or concrete—can block the formation of wetland habitat and lead to “nearshore erosion,” during which waves erode the shallow area in front of the man-made shore. This increases the amount of sediment suspended in the water.

Changing local heritage and visual character

Building outside of existing urban centers can change the heritage of existing communities. Development in small towns can impact local farming, fishing and forestry industries, and alter the visual character and “sense of place” that make the region unique.

How is the Chesapeake Bay Program working to conserve land in the watershed?

Conserving land and sustaining forests, farms and maritime communities helps protect clean air and water and allows people to experience the natural beauty of our region.

As of 2011, about 55 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed was forested and, as of 2016, 8.8 million acres of land—22 percent of the land in the region—had been permanently protected by Chesapeake Bay Program partners. 

Land conservation is supported by federal, state, local and privately funded programs. Land is protected through various methods, including conservation easements, purchase of development rights and land donations. Parks, recreational lands and publicly owned lands are also considered preserved land.

Current restoration goals

As part of the 2014 Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement, Chesapeake Bay Program partners committed to the goal of conserving landscapes treasured by citizens in order to maintain water quality and habitat; sustaining working forests, farms and maritime communities; and conserving lands of cultural, indigenous and community value. This includes a land conservation goal to protect an additional 2 million acres of wetlands, forests and other landscapes by 2025. As of 2016, partners had achieved 50 percent of that goal.

Take Action

For Chesapeake Bay restoration to be a success, we all must do our part. Our everyday actions can have a big impact on the Bay. By making simple changes in our lives, each one of us can take part in restoring the Bay and its rivers for future generations to enjoy.

To lessen the impacts of development on the Bay, consider reducing the amount of polluted stormwater that can run off of your property. Install a green roof, rain garden or rain barrel to capture and absorb rainfall; use porous surfaces like gravel or pavers in place of asphalt or concrete; and redirect home downspouts onto grass or gravel rather than paved driveways or sidewalks.

Individuals can also consider lowering air pollution by learning how to drive the Bay-friendly way; walking, biking or taking public transportation when possible; or using electric or manual yard tools instead of gas-powered machines.

Planners and developers can practice “smart growth” and “low impact development.” The former avoids sprawl and concentrates new development in areas that have existing or planned infrastructure; the latter uses natural processes to manage stormwater runoff.



Chesapeake Bay News

In The Headlines

Chesapeake Bay Watershed Population

In 2016, an estimated 18.1 million people lived in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: a 0.4 percent increase from 2015. Experts predict the watershed’s population will pass 20 million by 2030 and reach 21.1 million by 2040.

Bay Watershed Forest Cover

In the 1600s, forests covered 95 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. According to high-resolution land cover data collected in 2013 and 2014, just 57 percent of the watershed—about 24 million acres—is forested.

From Around the Web

Bay FAQs

  • What are impervious surfaces?
  • How many people live in the Chesapeake Bay watershed?
  • What can be done to counter the effects of development that has already occurred?


Bay Terms

  • Erosion
  • Forest fragmentation
  • Green infrastructure
  • Impervious
  • Infrastructure
  • Sediment
  • Sprawl
  • Stormwater


Bay-Friendly Tips

  • Plant Trees and Shrubs
  • Plant a buffer of trees and shrubs around the edge of your property to capture polluted runoff.
  • Reduce Polluted Runoff
  • Instead of washing your car at home, bring it to a car wash! Commercial car washes clean and often recycle their wash water.


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